Causes of Parturition in Cattle

Causes of Parturition in Cattle

1. 0 Introduction

Parturition in cattle is known to be a complicated physiological process, where the onset is generally accepted to become initiated by the fetus (Thorburn et al. , 1977; Thorburn, 1979). In regular circumstances, this complicated procedure involving different hormonal interactions and really should conclude without the human interference, leaving a healthy cow with a vigorous calf. However, the truth is a large proportion of calving require assistance to varying degrees that may result in a stillborn calf (Meijering, 1984). Domestication and breeding programmes in the dairy market select for cows that develop calves that are comparatively larger when compared to their dams; a normal occurrence in cattle compared to most other mammals (McClintock, 2004).

As dystocia is highly linked to the pelvic area (Price tag and Wiltbank, 1978), being able to measure the pelvic dimensions is effective. The procedure of measuring the internal and external ability and diameter of the pelvis is known as pelvimetry (Studdert et al. , 2011). That is elucidated in studies which reveal that there surely is value in using exterior pelvimetry as a predictor for the internal pelvic measurements (Murray et al. , 2002), while some show that withers elevation and heart and soul girth were the very best predictors of interior pelvic sizes (Kolkman et al. , 2012; Coopman et al. , 2003). Hence, it could be easier if the farmer had an alternate solution to measure internal pelvic sizes, such as for example predicting those sizes through measurements of external morphometry which could be done directly using measuring tape. So, the opportunity to accurately determine the likelihood of dystocia will allow early and appropriate intervention, which then decreases the morbidity and mortality of the dam and fetus, enhancing animal welfare and reducing economic losses (Linden et al. , 2009).

There is a dependence on details regarding associations between inner pelvic measurements and external morphometry, which might have value in deciding dams with bigger pelvic opening that increases calving simplicity (Bellows et al. , 1971). Currently, no study has been done to review the association between the intrapelvic measurements and the exterior morphometric measurements in Friesian cross cattle in Malaysia. Hence, the objective of this study was to look for the relationship between intrapelvic location, morphometric measurements, age, body weight and body condition score in Friesian cross cattle that could be of benefit in determining dams with bigger pelvic openings and therefore reducing the risk of dystocia. It is hypothesized that there is an association between your intrapelvic measurements and exterior morphometry in Friesian cross cattle.

2. 0 Literature Review

2. 1 Dystocia

Dystocia, defined as delayed or difficult parturition (Mushtaq, 2016), is often classified into two key causes which are direct factors and indirect elements (Meijering, 1984). The previous usually being anatomical and physiological elements such as malpresentation of the calf in the birth canal and uterine torsion in the dam. The latter relates to phenotypic results that are linked to the calf such as calf birth pounds, multiple calvings and perinatal mortality, as well as, phenotypic effects linked to the cow such as for example cow pelvic location, cow bodyweight at calving, cow body condition score, gestation size and calving assistance. Indirect factors likewise incorporate non-genetic factors such as cow age group, parity of cow, calf sex, nutrition and additional disorders, while genetic elements entail cow, bull and calf breeds (Zaborski et al. , 2009). The most common cause of dystocia is usually a physical incompatibility between the size of the foetus and maternal pelvic size, often known as feto-pelvic incompatibility. The pelvic size of the dam is principally influenced by the stage of maturity of the cow. Subsequently, a smaller size of the pelvis contributes to the higher incidence of dystocia in heifers (Haskell and Barrier, 2014) and vice versa where dams with larger pelvic openings experience less calving problems (Barrier et al. , 2013).

2. 2 Breed Comparisons

Several studies have proven that there are significant distinctions in pelvic dimensions between strains of beef and dairy cattle (Ramin et al. , 1995; Laster 1974; Meijering and Pastma, 1984; McElhenney et al. , 1985). There are also variations between herds within breeds, purebreds and crossbreeds, and little breeds and large breeds. The pelvic elevation and pelvic width rise greatly with advancing get older, which ultimately shows that the pelvic place is bigger in mature cows compared to heifers. The mean pelvic heights in beef and dairy heifers can vary from 13. 5 cm to 19. 3 cm, the pelvic width from 12. 6 cm to 18 cm, and the mean pelvic spot from 170 cm2 to 290 cm2.

2. 3 Impression of Dystocia on Dam

The occurrence of dystocia has shown to have an adverse effect on the reproductive efficiency of dairy cows, where in fact the first oestrus, days and nights open and the calving interval had been substantially longer (Gaafar et al. , 2010). Fertility is further more impaired consequently of dystocia since it causes a reduction in conception rate and a rise in the quantity of solutions per conception (Lopez de Maturana et al. , 2007). Total milk yield likewise tends to be lower in cows which have experienced dystocia at calving compared to those that calved normally (Berry et al. , 2007). Furthermore, you will find a significant upsurge in the mortality rate of cows enduring dystocia in comparison to the ones that calved without assistance and the number is normally highest in cows that want critical intervention during parturition (Dematawewa and Berger, 1997).

2. 4 Effects of Dystocia on Calf

Majority of stillbirths were reported to be a direct result of dystocia (Meyer et al. , 2000; Lombard et al. , 2007). During parturition, there are various dramatic physiological changes that may have adverse effects on the foetal oxygen focus (Lombard and Garry, 2013). The foetus can encounter neonatal asphyxia through the calving process because of hypoxia, decreased blood flow as a result of occlusions of the placenta, or ischaemia. Hypoxia can progress to anoxia, which can be prolonged with cases of dystocia resulting in foetal death (Bluel et al. , 2008). The calf may also have hypercapnia, which can cause respiratory acidosis. Nevertheless, during dystocia the respiratory acidosis will end up being pronounced and likewise to this, the hypoxia can cause anaerobic metabolism within the body that effects in metabolic acidosis. The acidotic state of the foetus can negatively impact the central nervous system leading to lowered vigour, major depression and decreased exercise, which is known as ‘weak calf syndrome’ or ‘dummy calf syndrome’ (Ravary-Plumioën, 2009). The dystocic calves had been slower to express the majority of the neonatal behaviours, especially the ones that lead up to reaching the udder, and generally lay recumbent (Barrier et al. , 2012). This outcomes in the failure of transfer of passive immunity as the calf struggles to absorb an adequate level of colostrum (Johnson et al. , 2007; Weaver et al. , 2000). This has been linked with a rise in calf morbidity and mortality and a reduction in the calf growth charge (Robison et al. , 1988; Donovan et al. , 1998).

2. 5 Economic Impacts

In a United Kingdom dairy herd, the full total cost of a somewhat difficult calving was estimated to be approximately £110, while a far more serious tough calving can range between £350 to £400. This takes into account the labour and veterinary costs, including the price tag on caesarean deliveries, the mortality of dams and calves and the culled cows, the losses incurred because of a decreased milk development and poor reproductive functionality (McGuirk et al. , 2007). In Australian Friesian Holstein herds, the cost of dystocia for a herd can go up to $5100 per year, where 30% of the losses is due to reduced fertility, 20% because of culling or dam loss of life, veterinary costs were about 10% and labour costs were 20%. The price of dystocia in primiparous cows was about $48. 49, while it was $19. 15 in mature cows. The entire losses connected with calving problems in the Australian dairy sector could be estimated to maintain more than $44 million yearly (McClintook, 2004). In a report by Dematewewa & Berger (1997), the approximated costs of dystocia had been $0. 00, $50. 45, $96. 48, $159. 82 and $379. 61 for dystocia scores 1 to 5 (1 representing no issue to 5 representing serious difficulty). which showed that losses incurred rise as the issue of calving increases.

2. 6 Pelvimetry

Internal pelvimetry entails the measurement of the pelvic elevation and the pelvic width, which allows the pelvic region to be determined (Rice and Wiltbank, 1972; Bellows et al. , 1971; Morrison et al. , 1986; Johnson et al. , 1988). The inner dimensions are measured using a sliding calliper device that’s referred to as a Rice pelvimeter. Various other instruments are also developed such as the Krautmann-Litton Bovine pelvic meter and the EquiBov Bovine pelvimeter (Deutscher, 1987). The external pelvimetry is mostly completed in correlation to the internal

pelvic dimensions where the measurements are considered on the exterior body of the animal; for instance, the pin width, hook width, rump size and hook to pin length (Bellows et al. , 1971; Johnson et al. , 1988; Coopman et al. , 2003). Pelvimetry is a relatively simple and reliable method to decide pelvic parameters of cows with the basis that the larger the pelvic area, the lower the calving difficulty. On the other hand, a farmer would need the products and services of a veterinarian with the skills and know-how to peform this technique, which would increase costs to the farm (Kolkman et al. , 2012).

2. 7 Welfare

The measurement of internal pelvic parameters can be invasive and posesses threat of trauma to the rectal mucosa. It has been recommended to administer epidural anaesthesia which allows the cow to stand normally without arching her again or wanting to strain. On the other hand, the administration of the epidural anaesthesia needs specialised veterinary training (Murray et al. , 2002). Regardless of the risk for damage, if the inner pelvimetry is performed properly and softly with the application of adequate quantities of lubrication, damage to the rectal mucosa can be avoided (Hiew and Constable, 2015).

3. 0 Supplies and Methods

Data was collected from 50 Friesian cross dairy cattle (23 from Ladang 16, Taman Pertanian Universiti (TPU), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and 27 others from two dairy cattle farms in Bangi, Selangor and Lenggeng, Negeri Sembilan that were section of the Ladang Angkat Programme) within an interval of 14 days using convenience sampling. Each of the cows were between 2-14 years and weighed between 200-750 kg. The age ranges of the cows at TPU had been extracted from recrodsm, whereas the age ranges of the various other cattle were determined using dentition (Lawrence et al. , 2001). This review was accepted by the Institutional Pet Care and Make use of Committee (IACUC), with the reference quantity: UPM/IACUC/FYP. 2016/FPV. 71

The external morphometry that was measured was the thoracic circumference, belly circumference, hook width and pin width. Thoracic circumference (Body 1) was determined utilizing a measuring tape (tailor fibreglass measuring tape) placed immediately caudal to the scapula and forelimbs. The abs circumference (Figure 2) was determined by inserting the same tape tape cranial to the hind limbs, tuber coxae and udder, and was measured in centimetres (West, 1997) (Shape 3). The hook width (Physique 4) was measured applying the linear distance between your most lateral surfaces of the wings of the ileum or tuber coxae. The pin width (Figure 5) may be the linear distance between your most lateral areas of the tuber ischium (Singh et al. , 1984) (Amount 6). These distances had been measured in centimetres employing right rulers and a tape measure whereby one direct metal ruler was placed vertically at the lateral aspect of the tuber coxarum or tuber ischium and the other straight steel ruler was placed vertically at the lateral facet of the contrary tuberosity with the measuring tape stretched tautly between the two rulers (Craig, 1941). The body condition rating was measured by using a 5-point scoring technique with quarter-stage increments from an established scoring program from Elanco Animal Overall health (1997). The body weight was dependant on measuring the thoracic circumference by using a calibrated heart and soul girth tape[MH1], in kilograms.

Figure 3: Exterior morphometry; a. Thoracic circumference, b. Abdominal circumference (Elanco Animal Health, 1997)

Figure 4: Measuring the length between the tuber coxae

Figure 5: measuring the length between the tuber ischii

Figure 6: Exterior morphometry; a. The distance between tuber coxae, b. The distance between tuber ischii (Elanco Animal Health, 1997)

The inner pelvimetry was measured utilizing a Rice pelvimeter (Lane Production Inc. , Colorado, U. S. A. ) (Figure 3) that provides measurements in centimetres with a gradient of 0. 25 cm. Faeces were manually evacuated from the rectum and the pelvimeter was well lubricated using an aqueous based mostly lubricant (BOVIVET Gel granulate). The shut pelvimeter was smoothly and slowly introduced in to the rectum in a closed position by the palm, with the arm of the investigator secured by using a disposable rectal sleeve (KRUTEX super sensitive disposable exam gloves) The pelvic height (Physique 4) was measured by opening these devices within the pelvic canal and documenting the distance between the dorsal aspect of the pubic symphysis on to the floor of the pelvis and the ventral aspect of the sacral vertebrae. The pelvimeter was then simply closed and rotated 90° to gauge the pelvic width, (Figure 5) which is defined as the horizontal distance at the widest level between your left and right ileal shafts at proper angle to where the height was measured (Bellows et al. , 1971). One limitation of the Rice pelvimeter is that it has a maximum reading of 20 cm, but in this research none of the cows acquired pelvic measurements that exceeded 20 cm. The intrapelvic place was calculated as the area of a rectangle by multiplying the pelvic width and the pelvic height (Gaines et al. , 1993; Ramin et al. , 1995; Green et al. , 1988). The intrapelvic area can also be measured as an ellipse with the equation PA = PH Ã- PW Ã- Ï€/4 (David, 1960). Regardless of the higher amount of accuracy offered by the ellipsoidal equation, the rectangle equation was employed for calculation because the ellipsoidal equation presented no benefit of predicting the chance of dystocia and didn’t differ when ranking pelvic size (Rice and Wiltbank, 1972).

All measurements taken had been measured 3 x consecutively by the same person and the resulting mean values were applied for analyses.

Data was located on a data capture sheet for every single farm, and transferred to an Excel pass on sheet (Microsoft Workplace Excel, 2016). The info was then analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. Data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Shapiro-Wilk evaluation was employed as a numerical method of assessing normality, and the result of a normal Q-Q plot was applied to identify this graphically. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the partnership old categories (2 – 3 years, 3 – 4 years, 4 – 5 years, 5 – 6 years and > 6 years) on the exterior morphometry and internal pelvic measurements. Pearson product-point in time correlation coefficient (r) was used to look for the association between internal pelvic dimensions and external morphometry, age, bodyweight and body condition rating. Regression research was performed to determine the ability of external morphometry, age, bodyweight and body condition score to predict interior pelvic dimensions. The info collected were used to develop multiple regression equations that estimate the interior pelvic sizes from the external measurements.

4. 0 Results

The descriptive statistics for age, body weight, body condition score, external morphometry and inner pelvic measurements for the 50 Friesian cross cows are given in Table 1.

Table 1: Era, body condition score, body weight, external morphometry and internal pelvic measurements for 50 Friesian cross cattle.





S. E.

S. D.


Age (months)

24. 00

165. 00

60. 16

4. 17

29. 16

54. 00

Body condition score (1-5)

2. 50

4. 00

3. 21

0. 05

0. 36

3. 25

Body weight (kg)

277. 3

722. 7

456. 9

14. 0

98. 7

437. 8

Thoracic circumference (cm)

151. 5

206. 2

177. 0

1. 8

12. 4

175. 9

Abdominal circumference (cm)

152. 0

227. 8

189. 2

2. 2

15. 8

189. 4

Distance between tuber coxae (cm)

38. 3

57. 2

47. 5

0. 6

4. 4

47. 7

Distance between tuber ischae (cm)

20. 0

45. 6

31. 5

0. 8

5. 7

31. 8

Pelvic height (cm)

12. 42

19. 50

16. 64

0. 22

1. 59

17. 13

Pelvic width (cm)

11. 67

19. 08

15. 64

0. 24

1. 69

15. 50

Pelvic area (cm2)

158. 31

398. 86

263. 28

7. 21

51. 02

262. 43

There was no significant difference between the mean pelvic section of the cows sampled and the minimum amount pelvic size of Friesian-Holsteins that was decided to get a low incidence of dystocia, where cows which experienced pelvic sizes greater than the determined worth of 260 cm2 would have a reduced risk of dystocia (Hoffman et al. , 1996). The mean pelvic size of the sampled cows was 3. 28 cm2 bigger than the determined value of 260 cm2. In this sample, 24 cows from the 50 (48%) had pelvic areas below 260 cm2, with the tiniest pelvic area being 158. 31 cm2.

4. 1 Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

The research of variance demonstrated that there was a statistically significant difference between the get older and: thoracic circumference (P = 0. 008), stomach circumference (P = 0. 046), range between tuber coxae (P = 0. 046) and distance between tuber ischii (P = 0. 009). However, there is no difference when it found pelvic elevation, pelvic width and pelvic spot (P > 0. 05) amidst the age categories. The post-hoc comparisons applying the Tukey HSD test out gave indications that the means for thoracic circumference was lower for the age categories 2 – three years (170. 1 ± 10. 7 cm, P = 0. 021), 3 – 4 years (172. 4 ± 12. 4 cm, P = 0. 017) when compared to category > 6 years (189. 4 ± 12. 9 cm). There is a significant difference (P = 0. 034) for abdominal circumference when comparing time category 4 – 5 years (180 ± 13. 3 cm) to > 6 years (201. 6 ± 15. 3 cm).

4. 2 Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation

Table 2 illustrates the correlations between the external morphometry and interior pelvic sizes, using Pearson’s Product-Point in time Correlation. This reveals that the exterior morphometric parameters of thoracic circumference, abs circumference, distance between tuber coxae, and distance between tuber ischii own a moderately, great correlation with

the inner pelvic measurements of pelvic height, pelvic width and pelvic region that were statistically significant (P = 0. 01). Age in a few months had a weak and confident correlation with pelvic elevation (r = 0. 35) and pelvic place (r = 0. 29) at the level of P = 0. 05. However, there is no correlation between time and pelvic width (r = 0. 25, P = 0. 86).

Table 2: Correlations between the external morphometry and internal pelvic parameters.


Pelvic Height

Pelvic Width

Pelvic Area

Thoracic circumference

0. 50**

0. 53**

0. 48**

Abdominal circumference

0. 60**

0. 52**

0. 52**

Distance between tuber coxae

0. 46**

0. 49**

0. 43**

Distance between tuber ischae

0. 47**

0. 54**

0. 50**

** Correlation coefficient (r) is definitely significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed)

Body excess fat (kg) showed a average confident correlation with pelvic elevation (r = 0. 40), pelvic width (r = 0. 50) and pelvic area (r = 0. 44) at a rate of P = 0. 01. Body weight also displayed an extremely strong great correlation with: thoracic circumference (r = 0. 99), abdominal circumference (r = 0. 76), range between tuber coxae (r = 0. 77) and the length between tuber ischae (r = 0. 73) at a rate of P = 0. 01. There have been no correlations between the intrapelvic height (r = 0. 11, P = 0. 55), intrapelvic width (r = -0. 10, P = 0. 47) and intrapelvic place (r = -0. 08, P = 0. 60)and the body condition score (-0. 104.

There were great correlations between years in months and thoracic circumference, stomach circumference, distance between your tuber coxae and range between tuber ischii, all of which are significant at the amount of P = 0. 01 (Table 3). There is also a significant correlation between age in months and the body fat (r = 0. 58, P < 0. 0005).

Table 3: Correlations between the age (months) and external morphometry in 50 Friesian cross cattle.

Age (months) with



Thoracic circumference

0. 56

< 0. 0005

Abdominal circumference

0. 48

< 0. 0005

Distance between tuber coxae

0. 45

< 0. 0005

Distance between tuber ischae

0. 63

< 0. 0005

The correlations between your external morphometry measurements receive in Desk 4. There is significant, strong and positive correlation between each one of the external morphometric measurements that were taken, where P < 0. 0005 for all variables.

Table 4 Correlations between the external morphometry of 50 Friesian cross cattle.


Thoracic circumference

Abdominal circumference

Distance between tuber coxae

Thoracic circumference

Abdominal circumference

0. 76**

Distance between tuber coxae

0. 78**

0. 72**

Distance between tuber ischae

0. 72**

0. 64**

0. 77**

** Correlation coefficient (r) is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed)

4. 3 Regression analysis

Several products were developed applying linear and multiple regression analyses, which can be used to predict internal pelvic parameters employing the exterior morphometric measurements that receive in Table 5. The very best predictors for pelvic elevation would be body weight and the exterior parameters of thoracic circumference and belly circumference, where these parameters make clear 58% of the variability of pelvic height. For pelvic width, the ideal predictor would be the distance between your tuber ischii which explains 29% of the variability of the pelvic width. Body weight, thoracic circumference and the length between tuber ischii were the very best predictors for pelvic area where they describe 40% of the variability of the pelvic location.

Table 5 Products to predict inner pelvic sizes from easily accessible external morphometry




S. E.

Pelvic Height

Y = -50. 57 – 0. 06 Ã- BW + 0. 47 Ã- Th + 0. 05 Ã- Abd

0. 58

1. 13

Y = -48. 90 – 0. 05 Ã- BW + 0. 52 Ã- Th

0. 40

1. 25

Y = 5. 13 + 0. 06 Ã- Abd

0. 37

1. 38

Pelvic Width

Y = 6. 74 + 0. 19 Ã- TcTc

0. 24

1. 49

Y = 10. 61 + 0. 16 Ã- TiTi

0. 29

1. 45

Pelvic Area

Y = -1549. 01 – 1. 54 Ã- BW + 14. Proofneeding a comic misspelling 4 responses to how help me with my math homework using www.cheephomeworkhelp.com/ to keep calm and carry on while waiting to hear from agents or editors rodney burke says december 20, 2016 at 12 59 pm when I was submitting to agents, I found their letters generally to be useless. 22 Ã- Th

0. 33

42. 51

Y = – 1585. 33 – 1. 56 Ã- BW + 13. 22 Ã- Th + 1. 17 Ã- Abd

0. 39

41. 15

Y = -1610. 11 – 1. 70 Ã- BW + 14. 38 Ã- Th + 3. 37 Ã- TiTi

0. 40

40. 78

5. 0 Discussion

This research was conducted to determine the relationship between external morphometry and interior pelvic measurements in cattle. This study likewise aimed to investigate the usage of external morphometry to effectively predict interior pelvic measurements to make an early diagnosis of possibly problematic heifers with little pelvic areas which is known to be a reason behind dystocia (Haskell and Barrier, 2014).

From this study, correlations were displayed to exist between all the external morphometric measurements and the inner pelvic measurements. This is consistent with the findings of Murray et al. (2012), whereby the distance between tuber coxae and length between tuber ischii had been correlated with the inner pelvic parameters as well as with Kolkman et al. (2012), whereby pelvic parameters were correlated with thoracic circumference. However, another study found that there is no significant relationship among external physique measurements and pelvic measurements (Brown et al. , 1971).

In this study, there is a positive and average correlation between the bodyweight and interior pelvic parameters (0. 40 < r < 0. 50). This is consistent with the results of Bellows et al. (1971) which showed a substantial positive correlation of the body weight and the inner pelvic parameters of pelvic elevation, pelvic weight and pelvic spot for Hereford and Angus dams.

There was a confident and fragile correlation between age in months and the inner pelvic measurements of pelvic height and pelvic area (0. 29 < r < 0. 35), however, not with pelvic width. Era in months likewise correlated with all exterior morphometry. Coopman et al. 2003 reported that the inner pelvic measurements and external body traits were positively correlated with age in months which is comparable to the findings of this study. The weak correlation observed in this study will be because of ageing of the cattle using dentition, that can be a subjective kind of ageing.

There was a negative correlation between your body condition score and pelvic height and pelvic place, and a great correlation with pelvic width, nonetheless they were not significant. This could be because body condition score is a subjective measure of your body fat scores, so now there is normally poor repeatability between several observers. However, a report by Bellows et al. (1971) showed a confident correlation between pelvic area and condition rating, while Micke et al. (2010) explained that an upsurge in body condition score increases the threat of dystocia.

External morphometry measurements can be used to pelvic measurements indirectly which is convenient as they are easier attained compared internal pelvimetry. In this instance, the farmer will not require any veterinary abilities and only needs nominal equipment (flexible measuring tape and rulers) to acquire measurements of the exterior morphometry. There is also limited risk to the pets involved besides being truly a quick and easy approach to estimate the pelvic.

Dystocia is because several factors, with one of them being a tiny pelvic size. Use of pelvic area to recognize the possibility of dystocia occurring is usually somewhat debated as it accounts for only a tiny section of the factors that contributes to dystocia (Bellows et al. , 1971; Gaines et al. , 1993; Meijering, 1984). Nevertheless, the pelvic area is probably the available measurements that folks may use to actively manage the chance of dystocia occurring in cattle (Micke et al. , 2010). By being in a position to identify cattle who are at an increased risk for dystocia through the use of pelvic area measurements, it’ll enable increased supervision through the expected time of calving and allows timely intervention in instances that require assistance. This avoids feasible accidental injuries or trauma to the cattle by prior identification, which could be considered a cost-effective management approach and one which also promotes creature welfare.

6. 0 Conclusion

This study demonstrates by using the models derived, inner pelvic measurements can be predicted with external morphometry. This allows the identification cattle that may own calving difficulties due to a smaller pelvic region.

7. 0 Recommendations

A larger sample size is preferred as it will enhance the accuracy and accuracy of the benefits. Besides that, collecting research subjects from numerous several locations will certainly reduce biasness and help produce a model which is normally representative of the Friesian cross breed in Malaysia.

Instead of employing the ruler and tape measure approach as found in this analysis, Vernier callipers would provide even more accurate measurements. More external morphometric measurements could be taken, such as for example withers height that’s defined as the length from the top of the shoulder to the ground, hook height, thought as the distance from the most notable of the tuber coxae to the bottom and rump duration, which is the distance from the tuber coxarum to the ipsilateral tuber ischium.

The intrapelvic measurements can be taken using various other pelvimeters, such as Krautmann-Litton bovine pelvic meter (Jorgensen Laboratories, Inc. , Loveland, CO) and the Equibov pelvic clearance micrometre (Equibov, Ontario, Canada), gives a higher amount of accuracy and could be used in comparison to the Rice pelvimeter.

Future studies seeking at the correlation of dystocia ratings, pelvic place and size of calves (Hiew et al. , 2016) may be done in order to develop better and better quality types to predict dystocia in Friesian cross cattle in Malaysia.

[MH1]What may be the proper name for the tape, provider, etc.


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